The printable version of these proceedings was published in 2014 under scientific responsibility of Elisabeth Wina et al.
by the Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Developement
Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Developpement
Ministry of Agriculture of Indonesia

The printable version is available as one single pdf file (286 pages - 217 630 Ko) : click here to load 

The actual on-line version is published by the World Rabbit Science Association - ISSN - 2308-1910
Each communication is presented as a scientific reference with abstract + pdf file of the full text,
in the order of the printable version
The choice was made made to refer only to the 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association (ARPA)

Some photos taken during the Conference - click on the image to enlarge


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Invited papers
Rabbit farm current status
Genetic, Breeding, and Reproduction
Veterinary and Management
Socio economic, policy , and post harvesting

Different pictures taken by F. Lebas during the oral presentations or photos of posters were added after the pdf texts, but not for all communications

Haryono Ir., 2013. Policy in Rabbit Research and Development in Indonesia. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia , 3-4
Increasing population, world economic globalization, global warming and domestic crisis including manpower quality are among challenges faced by many nations, including Indonesia, to provide food, shelter, job opportunity and welfare to the people in the country. Rabbit, among many animal species has high potential to provide a substantial amount of meat, hence contribute to more food security. Problems in raising rabbits in Indonesia, as a hot humid country includes lack of availability of quality rabbit breeds and quality feed, lack of appropriate technology for production or management and frequent diseases incident. A short of capital and small size of land use, as commonly occurs in many developing countries, cause a difficulty to produce effective and efficient production. Policy in research is prioritized to producing breeds that are adaptable to Indonesian situation, efficient feeds and feeding management fitted to local condition and also to handle disease problem. Farming management in farmers group is also a concem. A small-medium scale industry-type operation based on farmers cooperation which is integrated with organic plant production is a short term goal. A more integrated commercial type production supported by high investment and technology is a longer term objective.
Luthan F., 2013. Government role in developing rural rabbit production in Indonesia. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia , 5-8
Agricultural sector including livestock and animal health plays a role in the formation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Indonesia, increase employment and foreign exchange, increase people's incomes and poverty alleviation. The Ministry of Agriculture in 2010-2014 has four main targets to be achieved, including the achievement of self-sufficiency and sustainable self-sufficiency, realization of food diversification, to increase the added value and competitiveness and improving the welfare of farmers. In achieving those four main targets, Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health (DGLAH) issuing policies that one of which is the development of Minor Livestock Production (such as rabbit, quail, deer meat) fanning system to support meat sufficience for farmers. The farming system which can be developed in rural condition and do not require large area of land is rabbit husbandry. To improve the rabbit fanning and production, needs to develop the pattern of cooperation with stakeholders and the availability of village rabbit breeding center should be enhanced to provide good quality of rabbit breed.
Gao Y.X., 2013. Industrial rabbit production and Kangda rabbit production. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia , 9-14
An industry or a company cannot develop well without a good policy support from the government. This presentation will address two issues, the industrialized rabbit production and the industrialized rabbit production of Kangda Group. Expanded rabbit production will increase healthy meat supply to meet the increasing meat consumption requirement in Asia, while reduce, in great extend, the fodder crop consumption by livestock industry, thus, alleviate the grain crisis pressure. Expanded rabbit industry will also provide jobs for the farmers and increase their income, and flourish rural economy. Increasing in the world rabbit meat production is 90% of the increase comes from Asia countries. Asian Rabbit industry plays a very important role in world rabbit production. Great majority of rabbit production in Asian countries are still micro and small scaled backyard farming, facing. constraints and problems, such as, limited capital, knowledge (technology), source of feed, management, high breeding cost and low quality and productivity, low risk resistance etc. which cannot meet the increasing demand for meat of developing countries. Qingdao Kangda Food Ltd is an integrated company involving rabbit breeding, processing ,researching and marketing. Kangda has now become China's largest leading rabbit production enterprise.
Lebas F., 2013. Feeding Strategy for Small and Medium Scale Rabbit Units. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 15-32
Feeding strategy of rabbit breeders depends first of all on the type and source of feeds available for the unit. For units situated in a urban context, with no or only a very small surface cultivable for rabbits, the main source of feeds can be only raw or manufactured materials (complete feeds) purchased from the local market. Fresh material obtained from a small garden or as kitchen waste could have only a marginal contribution in rabbits feeding, if the number of rabbits simultaneously present in the unit exceed 4-5 individuals. If the complete pellet feed is available locally, the use of this type of feed is the easiest and most frequently cheapest solution. If not available, a simple solution is the use of dry forages purchased from the market (i.e. hay in most of the situations) distributed ad libitum plus cereal grains distributed in limited quantities, and fresh water. According to climate and conditions of cultivation, with 1000 m² of crop cultivated exclusively for rabbits, one may expect to produce 15 to 60 slaughter rabbits per year. For units located in the countryside, if the breeder can cultivate a sufficient area, he can feed his rabbits almost exclusively with the production of his field: forage, cereals, etc. and some crop by-products. It's necessary to purchase only minerals, (salt, calcium for the does and probably phosphorus), and cages design must be adapted to healthy distribution of grains (feeders) and forages (rack). But the breeder must pay attention to the relative income he can obtain from the same field, if it is cultivated for rabbits feeding or cultivated for a production directly marketable. He must also compare the economical result of rabbit feeding with purchased complete feeds, if locally available. The nutritional balance of grains and fodder obtained from the crops must be at the centre of the cultivation planning. The strategy should be adapted to the type of rabbits in consideration. After weaning, growing rabbits are relatively easy to be fed: they grow for the quantity and quality of the provided feeds: low feed quantity and/or unbalanced diet = low growth rate; on the other hand if feed quality is good and quantity sufficient, growth rate is higher. The only important point is to provide enough fibre. On the contrary breeding does and more specially lactating ones must receive balanced diets in the proper quantity. If this objective is not obtained, the doe produces milk by drawing nutrients from her poor reserves. The milk quantity is too low for the young, the doe's health declines quickly and its reproduction stops. Forages, green or dry, provide the required level of fibre, one part of the digestible energy and of digestible proteins. Grains provide energy and an appreciable quantity of proteins, largely greater for legume grains than for the cereals grains. It must be pointed out that in cereals and grass, in general, the proportion of lysine in the proteins is too small to cover rabbit's requirement, but the sulphur amino acids (SAA) content is generally sufficient. On the contrary, in legumes grains and forages, the lysine content of proteins is sufficient but the SAA content may be too low. Some data on suitability of different forages, grains and crops by-products are given in the text particularly as source of proteins and minerals. These data were mainly extracted from the Feedipedia online encyclopedic database. The final remark is that rabbit feeding every day with green fodder is time consuming and in many cases working time is the limiting factor of this technique. Utilisation of dried stored forages (hay) provides a greater flexibility in the daily feeding practice.
Dinh Van Binh, Nguyen Ky Son, 2013. Results of Research and the Development of Rabbit Production in Vietnam from 2000 to 2012. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 33-44.
Vietnam is tropical country located in Southeast Asia with a monsoon climate. The total area of country is 33.2 million hectares, In the 2012, total population were 88.78 million consisted of 52 million farmers which are 67% of total labors who are working in the agricultural sector. The cultivated area is about 11 million ha. The agriculture is based mainly on rice production of 39-42 million tons per year. The agriculture output value contributes 25 of GDP of which food production from 73% and livestock production from 27% dealing mainly with pigs, cattle, chicken, ducks, goats and rabbit. Rabbit production have been raised in small household extensive systems in Vietnam for long time. Rabbit production is popular in rural areas and is considered lobes self-sufficient system with low productivity. In the recent years, (from 2010 to 2012 when bird flu (H5N1), Green ear and FMD diseases in the poultry and other animals have happened in Vietnam), rabbit production has been paid more attention by farmers and government agencies as a means to improve the income of the rural poor. So some achievements have been obtained in the field of breeding, nutrition, processing, preventing diseases. The population of rabbits has increased at over the last 10 years from 1,985,000 heads in 2000 to 3,450,000 in 2005; and 5,452,700 heads in 2010, 6,379,660 heads in 2011 and 7,655,590 heads in 2012 an average annual rate of increase about 17.8%. During this time, the price of rabbit products has increased from 35,000 to 80,000 VND/kg of live weight rabbit meat. Rabbit breed includes local indigenous breeds of Re Rabbit, Black rabbit and Grey Rabbit have been found to perform well under improved management conditions. Some new rabbit breeds have been imported from Hungaria and France (New Zealand white rabbit, California rabbit; Panon rabbit and Hyplus rabbit) with adaptation studies for furred keeping and crossing with local rabbit to improve meat production. A series of studies using local feed resources and strategic disease control measures were carried out in the context of developing sustainable and integrated small animals farming systems. These studies showed that up to 35% improvement in productivity can be achieved by such techniques. Some programs and projects have been carried out with the joint support of the Vietnamese government and international organizations, and have resulted in highly successful outcomes. In 2007 a new rabbit station have been setup with 1500 rabbit does to produce 30,000 rabbit provide for farmers raising per year. In 2012, there were 150 heads New Zealand and 50 heads California GP breeds were imported from France to improve productivity of rabbit. It is clear that rabbit production can play an important role in improving the incomes for poor farmers in the rural areas and is contributing to poverty and hunger alleviation in Vietnam.
Alimon A.R., Noor Rahim S., Fadzilah A.K., 2013. The Status and Prospect of Rabbit Farming in Malaysia. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 45-54.
The rabbit industry is a small sector of the livestock industry. It can be equated to the quail industry which supplies meat to limited number of consumers. While rabbit has been hailed as the alternative to chicken meat, especially in times of poultry meat scarcity, its development is rather slow. The rabbit industry in Malaysia can be classified as those that supply rabbit meat, and those that supply live rabbits for breeding and for pets. The pet industry together with eco- and edu-tourism sector is increasing at a slow but steady rate thereby providing a constant demand for live rabbits and rabbit meat for consumption. At these eco- and tourism parks, children are allowed to touch rabbits which can be quite an attraction for children. Rabbits for pets, edu parks and exhibition tend to come in at various colours and sizes. Quite often, these eco-tourism and edu parks sell rabbit meat for those interested. In general, most rabbit farms in Malaysia are small to medium sized, carrying between 500-1000 breeding females. Most common breeds for meat are the New Zealand Whites and Californian Whites, while those for pets comprised of breeds from Europe and other parts of the world. They ranged from small miniature breeds to breeds that are large and weigh 3-5 kg. The farmers in Malaysia follow the protocols set by the Australian and American standards for rabbit rearing, as Malaysia has not come up with specific procedures. Commercial meat rabbits are fed rabbit pellets supplied by a number of feed mills, usually with a crude protein content of 18-20%. Pet rabbits are fed rabbit pellets and supplemented with leafy vegetables or grass hay. As far as small holder farmers are concerned keeping rabbits can be lucrative and profitable and provides added income to the farmer. Small holder farms in Malaysia keep other animals with some rabbits raised in cages and fed whatever feed that is available.
Nasrullah, Iskandar S., Raharjo Y.C. , 2013. Past and Present Research on Rabbit Production at The Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 55-60
Rabbit production has been increasing in Indonesia since the last 10 years. It was increasing since the abruptly breakout of the bird flu. Substantial numbers of household poultry farmers in the village changed their poultry to rabbits. Nationally, small rabbit farming were introduced in the 1980s, as a Government program to alleviate meat protein consumption of the community in rural areas. Since the introduction and widespread distribution of rabbits in the 1980s, rabbit has become an interest for research in Indonesia. However, since rabbit has not been considered as a high priority animal to be developed, its research funds, hence, numbers of its researches were limited. More than six strains of rabbit were available in Indonesia. The most number of strains were found in our research institute and the other were found in small holder farms throughout the country. Researches were mainly dealt with forage and by-product feeds utilization for meat production. In the late 80s and early 90s, when Rex and Satin were introduced, researches were redirected to the production of quality fir including the tanning process. In the late 90s and early 2000s, successful attempt was achieved to produce a breed of rabbit that has Rex-Satin like-fur (named as Reza), with soft, uniform and shiny fur. This breed (Reza) however, was susceptible to enteritis and rather slow in growth. In the last three-four years, the interest of farming rabbits in various areas, although at very small scale farming (5-20 does), increases tremendously. This increase interest may partly be caused of market is widely open, price of rabbit is high, widespread of Avian Influenza, high price of poultry feed and then rabbit farming become an alternative for family who used to be raising local chicken. Problems faced by rabbit farmers are low availability and quality of breeding stock, expensive premixed diet for intensive raising, low availability of good quality forages and high incidence of enteritis. Mortality of 20-40% prior to and 4 weeks after weaning often occurs with the rabbit in small scale farming. Currently, research is directed to have productive Rex, Satin, Reza and produce a medium-big size Reza, reduce mortality through nutrition and possible use of some herbs known to prevent diarrhoea and improve village rabbit management.
Muralidharareddy V., Das S.K., Subhashini Ch., Reddy V.M., 2013. Rabbit Farming: Socio Economic Status in India - A Review . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 61-64
Rabbit was introduced in India as an alternative source of meat production. The commercial rearing in Kerala has been started within private and Government sector. In four districts of Kerala the scheme for rabbit development is being implemented. Kerala Agricultural University has setup the ICAR project for rabbit breeding in 1984. This study shows that Soviet Chinchilla as maximum birth weight of 62 g. While the average body weight at 12 weeks of age was maximum of New Zealand White being 1539 g. Good breeds, good feeding management using local available seeds and millets, good sanitation and disease management, are some factors of success of rabbitry in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh
Nguyen Thi Duong Huyen, Nguyen X.T., Preston T.R., 2013. Effects of Supplementation of Paddy Rice and/or Rice Grain and/or Rice Husk to Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Vines as Basal Diet on Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Digestibility of New Zealand White Rabbits. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 67-73.
An experiment was conducted to determine effects of supplementation of paddy rice and/or rice grain and/or rice husk to sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as basal diet diets for growing New Zealand White rabbits on feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and economic returns. A total of 28 male New Zealand White growing rabbits at 6 weeks of age were allocated into 4 treatment groups with 7 rabbits each in single cages. Supplementations were designed as following: 1. Sweet potato vines (SPV): Basal diet without supplement, 2. PRG20: SPV plus paddy rice grain at 20 g/day, 3. BRG20: SPV plus broken rice grain at 20 g/day, 4. BRGH: SPV plus 16 g broken rice grain and 4 g rice husk in separate feed bowls. The experiment lasted 8 weeks following 1 week of adaptation. It was found that total DMI among the experimental and control groups were not significantly different (P>0.05), either in an absolute term (g/head/day) or as percentage of LW. Supplementation of paddy rice, broken rice and rice husk reduced forage intake. Supplementation had a positive effect on ADG and FCR (P<0.05). Moreover, grain supplementation to forage-based diet had a significant economic effect
Nguyen Thi Kim Dong, 2013. Effects of Different Supplement of Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) Oil in Para Grass Basal Diets on Feed Utilization, Nutrient Digestibility, Growth Rate and Meat Production of Crossbred Rabbits. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 74-80.
An experiment was carried out in the experimental farm and laboratory of Can Tho University (Vietnam) to evaluate feed utilization, nutrient digestibility, growth performance of Crossbred rabbits supplemented by catfish oil. It was a completely randomized design with 5 treatments that were 5 supplement levels of 0, 5, 7, 9, and 11 g catfish oil per rabbit per day, three replications and 4 rabbits (balanced sex) per experimental unit. The results show that the intakes of DM, CP and NDF were similar among the treatments (P>0.05), however the EE and ME intakes significantly increased when increasing supplement levels of catfish oil in the diets and the highest values in the CFO9 and CFO11 treatments (P<0.05).The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP and NDF were similar among the treatments (P>0.05), except for the EE digestibility that was clearly improved when supplementing catfish oil in the diets and the significantly highest (91.9%) (P<0.05) was found in the CF09 treatment. The daily weight gain and fmal live weight were significantly higher for rabbits supplemented 9 g CFO per animal per day (P<0.05). The significantly higher weight of carcasses, thigh meat and lean meat were for the rabbits given 9 g CFO per day (P<0.05). It was concluded the Crossbred rabbits supplemented CFO in the diets enhanced the EE and ME intakes, and at level of 9g CFO per animal per day had better growth performance and gave higher benefit.
Nguyen Van Thu, 2013. Feeding Strategies of Green Forages Associated with Local Supplement Resources Increasing Income for Rabbit Producers and Benefits for Environment in Rural Areas in Vietnam. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 81-102.
In many countries the rabbit production industries are mainly relied on the pellets produced by the feed companies which result in the high cost, while in the villages the small holder farmers economically raise rabbits for incomes and home consumption by the utilization of local green forages and diversified supplementation. The sustainability of animal production in tropical developing countries becomes more important in the 21th century due to limitation of grains and other supplements caused by the increase of human population, biofuel production and climate changes. Rabbit production could be considered as the animal meat source which has a good contribution to the protein consumption in the world because of its quick reproductivity, forage feeding, low capital input and green house gas emission. Particularly, in the rural poor areas of the tropical developing countries where green forages and local protein and energy supplements are available in organic farming systems, in which the peasants could easily collect or produce them with low cost. In this paper the author present and discuss the research results and experiences on rabbits fed green forages and local supplement resources which have been produced under Vietnam's conditions over ten years. The effects of feeding natural forages including grasses and legumes and supplementing tubers, stalks and agro-industrial byproducts on nutrition, nutrient digestibility, growth and reproductive performance and economic return are stated. The roles of energy, fiber and protein intakes relating to rabbit productivity and economic returns are also mentioned as the main issues of the presentation. The objective of this paper is to introduce the rabbit feeding strategies which are benefited by producers and environment in the tropical developing countries.
Nguyen Thi Vinh Chau, Nguyen Van Thu, 2013. Effects of Dietary Neutral Detergent Fiber Levels on Feed Intakes, Production Performance and Nutrients Utilization of Growing Crossbred Rabbits Reared in Mekong Delta of Vietnam. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 103-109..
A study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, caecal fermentation and carcass value of crossbred (New Zealand x local) rabbits reared in Mekong delta of Vietnam. Seventy two rabbits at 8 weeks of age were randomly allocated to six treatments and three replications (2 males and 2 females per each experimental unit). The treatments were dietary NDF levels of 33, 36, 39, 42, 45 and 48% (DM basis), respectively, variations obtained mainly by increasing the para grass proportion (0 to 72%) and reduction of water spinach leaves (82.3 to 0%). The experimental period was 12 weeks, in which the samples collected for digestibility trial was for one week at the age of 13. week. The results showed that The DM, CP and ME intakes was numerically higher for the NDF36 and NDF39 treatments, however only their values of the NDF36 treatment were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the NDF42, NDF45 and NDF48 treatments. As a result the higher values of daily weight gain and profit were higher for the NDF36 and NDF39 treatment. There were significant differences (P<0.05) of DMD and OMD among different treatments, but these were not found for CPD, EED, NDFD and ADFD (P>0.05). The DMD, OMD, NDFD and ADFD decreased with increasing dietary NDF. The nitrogen retention values decreased when increasing the dietary NDF. The conclusion was that the proper levels of dietary NDF concentration for growing crossbred rabbits from 8 to 20 weeks of age was from 36 to 39 %. Feed and nutrient intakes, growth and meat production were significantly affected by the dietary NDF levels.
Raharjo Y. C., Haryati T., Mudaris A, Sweet, 2013. The Use of Coco Peat as a Source of Fiber with Or without Multienzyme Supplementation for Rabbits. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 110-114..
Coco peat is a waste product of coconut oil industry and sometimes is considered to causing pollution to the environment. It contains a very high content of fiber, especially lignin, hence is hardly utilized as an economically valued product. Rabbits, on the other hand, requires a certain amount of indigestible fiber, including lignin to facilitate the normal digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. An experiment was carried out to study the lignin inclusion in the rabbit diet supplemented with or without enzymes on the performance of the rabbits including the digestibility of coco peat. A factorial 2 x 3, in which 2 levels of enzyme (0 and 30g/100 kg) and 3 levels of cocopeat (0 - 6.01 and 12.2%, which contribute 0, 4 and 8% crude fiber to the diet, respectively) was applied. Each treatment combination consisted of 6 replicates, each of 3 weanling rabbits. All treatments were formulated to contain 18% crude protein, 2550 kcal/kg DE and 14% crude fiber. Trial was carried out for 10 weeks. Therefater, 1 animal from each replicate was slaughtered for carcass percentage. A digestibility study was carried through a total collection method in 5 strains of rabbit (Rex, Satin, Reza, NZW and Meat-type crossed). For digestibility purpose, coco peat was mixed 50:50 with the basal diet. Fecal collection was carried out for 10 days following a 3 days adaptation. All results were subjected to an Anova analysis which was followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) for any significant differences among treatment means. Results indicated that there was no significant interaction of level of cocopeat with level of enzymes among all measured parameters. No significant differences were noted in feed consumption, carcass percentage, FCR, meat and pelt production among levels of dietary coco peat or among levels of enzyme. It is observed however, that higher levels of coco peat consistently decreased the performance, which was significant in bodyweight and bodyweight gain, when 8% dietary coco peat fiber was included. Inclusion of enzyme slightly but not significantly improved the performance of measured parameters. When basal diet was used, body weight gain of the NZW was significantly higher than other treated rabbits. However no differences were noted on feed consumption and dry matter digestibility (DMD). On the other hand, when coco peat was included at 50% in the basal diet, BWG was negative for all rabbits and feed consumption was lower compared with those at basal diet. The DMD was poorer (P<0.05) in Rex, Satin and Reza compared with faster growing rabbits (Cross and NZW). In Conclusion, coco peat can be included at a very low level (4%) in the diet. It however could be used as a source of lignin to balance the ratio of cellulose: lignin when the indigestible lignin is limitedly available.
Rakhmani S.I.W., 2013. Effect of Various Fiber Sources on the Growth of Weaned Rabbit . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 115-119..
Four fiber sources (cane-top, rice straw, saw dust and rice hull) were observed in this study. Digestibility trial was carried out using 12 male satin rabbit (3 replicates, each of 4 rabbits). Each of test fiber source was mixed with a basal diet at 1:1 ratio and then were pelleted. Three days adaption period was applied and followed with 7 days feeding and fecal collection. Protein digestibility was 30.78% (basal+canetop) and 57.22% for basal diet. Energy digestibily showed positive value, however NDF, ADF and lignin digestibilities showed negative values for basal and basal + canetop, rice straw and saw dust. The result showed that rice hull gave positive values for all digestibility subjects. Feeding trial was conducted to 100 weaned rabbit (6 week-old) with 5 treatments (1)Control, 2) Basal+canetop, 3) Basal+ rice straw, 4) Basal+ saw dust and 5) Basal+ rice hull. The crude protein content was between 17.6 % and 18.27% and gross energy was between 3834 and 4499 kcal/ kg. Feed consumption, weight gain, feed consumption ratio was measured. The average of total mortality in the 6th week reached 27% with the highest for basal+canetop treatment (45%) and followed with saw dust (30%), for rice straw and rice hull (both 25%). Average daily feed consumption of each rabbit for control basal (B), basal+canetop (BCT), basal+rice straw (BRS), basal+saw dust (BSD) and basal+rice hull (BRH) treatments were 100.02; 72.65; 69.54; 65.76 dun 63.95 g respectively. The average of feed consumption ratio for B, BCT, BRS, BSD and BRH were 4.68, 6.87; 6.15; 6.88 and 7.40 respectively and average of daily weight gain for B, BCT, BRH, BRS and BSD were 17.2; 11.11; 5.62; 14.34 and 8.19 g respectively. Rice straw could be a promising fiber source that can be used for rabbit diet.
Kovitvadhi A., Gasco L., Ferrocino I., Cocolin L., Malavasi C., Zoccarato I., 2013. The Effect of Dietary Lythrum salicaria on the Rabbit's Performance and Microbial Community . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 120-125..
Medical plants with anti-microbial properties have been used as an animal diet supplementation, to improve the performance and health in commercial and organic livestock productions. One of the medical plant, Lythrum salicaria (LS; purple loosestrife), was discovered those activities from their extracted compounds. Balanced microbial community in rabbit gastrointestinal tract have important role to provide the healthy condition. Therefore, the effect from dietary LS on performance and on gut microbiota were the objective of this research. One hundred and sixty Hycole weaned rabbits (35-day-old) were randomly devided into four groups which included one control and three treatment groups. Respectively, 0.2%, 0.4% dry powder of LS and CUNIREL (CR; the commercial phyto-additive mixture from Biotrade®, Italy, contained the LS as the main ingredient) were added in the treatment diets. Performance data were recorded at 1, 21 and 49 days after experiment beginning. For microbial diversity analysis, hard feces from 10 systemic random sampling rabbits, were collected separately at 35, 42, 49, 56, 70 and 89 days of age, whereas caecal contents were taken at slaughter day (89-day-old). After that, samples which in the same group, collected site and collected date were pooled for further molecular analysis. The microbiota were assessed at species level by using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene. There were not statistically significant differences on performances (weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, morbidity, mortality and health risk index) between the control and treatment groups. The dendrogram generated by using DOGE profiles of 16S rRNA fragments show that the similarity between rabbit fed with LS and commercial product were higher if compared with conventional diet. On the other hand, we found high similarity between samples obtained from caecal content and hard feces at the end of the experiment whereas no any adverse effects from dietary LS were found on rabbit's performance.
Truong Thanh Trung, Nguyen Thi Kim Dong, 2013. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Growing Californian Rabbits Fed Available Feedstuffs in Mekong Delta of Vietnam. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 126-132.
A study including two experiments was conducted at the Experimental farm of Cantho University in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary crude protein levels in the diets of growing Califomian rabbits on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. In experiment 1, feeding trial, sixty Californian rabbits at 42 days of age, was arranged in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications and 4 balanced sex rabbits per experimental unit. The 5 dietary treatments were different protein levels of 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23%, respectively. CP increase was obtained mainly by increase of the soybean (meal ?) proportion Other feed ingredients were Operculina turpethium, soya waste, sweet potato tuber and para grass, all ingredients were given fresh, 3 times per day. In the experiment 2, nutrient digestibility trial, had similar design to that of the feeding trial, however, 12-week old rabbits were used. The results of study indicated that crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P<0.05) with increasing of crude protein levels in the diets. The average daily gain was the highest and feed conversion ratio was the lowest in the CP21% treatment (P<0.05) with 23.3g/rabbit/day and 3.06, respectively. The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF and nitrogen retention were significantly increased (P<0.05) with increasing the levels of CP in the diets. The weight of carcasses, thigh meat and lean meat were significantly higher (P<0.05) for animals fed 21% CP (CP21). It could be concluded that growing Californian rabbits fed diet with 21% crude protein had the best growth performance, higher nutrient digestibility and gave better economic returns.
Nguyen Thi Kim Dong, Nguyen Van Thu, 2013a. Effects of Coconut Cake Supplement in Diets on Feed Utilization, Nutrient Digestibility, Growth Performance and Economic Return of Crossbred Rabbits . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 133-139.
Sixty crossbred rabbits at 8 weeks of age were allotted in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments that were 5 supplement levels of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50g coconut cake (COC) per rabbit per day corresponding to the COC10, COC20, COC30, COC40 and C0050 treatments, respectively. Three replications and 4 rabbits (balanced sex) per experimental unit were used. The results show that the DM intake was significantly higher for the rabbits supplemented 30g COC (P<0.05). The intakes of CP. EE and ME were higher for the animals fed 30, 40 and 50 g COC (P<0.05). The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE and NDF were significantly higher in the COC30 treatment (P<0.05). Nitrogen intake and nitrogen retention increased corresponding with increasing COC supplementation in the diets (P<0.05). The daily weight gain was significantly higher for rabbits given 30g COC per animal per day (P<0.05). The final live weight, the carcasses, thigh meat and lean meat weights were significantly higher for rabbits fed 30g and 40g COC per day (P<0.05). In conclusion, the crossbred rabbits supplemented coconut cake in the diets had significantly increased the OM, CP, EE and ME intakes. At the supplementation level of 30g COC per animal per day had higher growth rate, meat production and better profit.
Nguyen Van Thu, Nguyen Thi Kim Dong, 2013a. A Response of Energy Intakes, Growth Rate and Carcass Values of Crossbred Rabbits to the Supplementation of Sweet Potato Tuber (Ipomoea batatas) in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 140-146.
To evaluate effects of the supplementation of sweet potato tubers in diets on nutrient utilization, growth and meat production of growing rabbits, sixty crossbred rabbits (Californian x local) at 45 days of age (703.51 g/rabbit) were arranged in one experiment of complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications. Four rabbits balancing in sex were used for one experimental unit. The treatments were the supplementation levels of sweet potato tubers of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 gDM/rabbit/day corresponding to SPTO, SPT10, SPT20, SPT30 and SPT40 treatments, respectively. The fresh sweet potato tubers were prepared by washing and cut into small slides for feeding. The feeds used for the experiment were Para grass (Brachiaria mutica), water spinach leaves, soya waste and oil-extracted soybean meal, in which the Para grass was fed ad libitum. The experimental results indicated that supplementing SPT at levels of 30 and 40 gDM in diets significantly (P<0.05) increased for the daily dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes. However no significant (P>0.05)variations of intakes of CP, EE, NDF and ADF were found between different treatments. The daily weight gains (WG) were significantly different (P<0.05) among the treatments and were 17.8 - 19.5 - 21.6 - 21.9 and 21.9 g/rabbit for the SPT0, SPT10, SPT20, SPT30 and SPT40 treatments, respectively. Similarly, the carcass weight values were significantly different (P<0.05) among the treatments with highest value for the SPT30 treatment. The economic analysis showed that the profits were higher for the SPT20, SPT30 treatments and they were 22,054 and 21,404 VND/kgWG, respectively. It was concluded that the SPT supplementation to crossbred rabbit diets should be recommended being from 20 to 40 g DM/rabbit/day to improve the growth performance, profit and sustainable production.
Nguyen Thi Kim Dong, Nguyen Van Thu, 2013b. Effects of Different Supplement of Cassava Chip in Para Grass and Water Spinach Basal Diets on Reproductive Performance of Californian Rabbits. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 147-153.
An experiment was done at the Experimental farm Long Hoa in Binhthuy district of Cantho city to evaluate the effects of different supplement levels of cassava chip (CAC) in para grass and Water spinach basal diet on the reproductive performance of Californian rabbits in two litters. The experiment was a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments as 5 diets and 6 replicates. One male rabbit at 5-6 months of age per experimental unit and 8 California female rabbits were used for mating service for the study. Five treatments were the supplement levels of cassava chip of 10 g (CAC10), 20 g (CAC20), 30 g (CAC30), 40 g (CAC40), and 50 g (CAC50) per doe per day, respectively. In two litters the results indicated that DM and ME intakes significantly increased (P<0.05) when CAC supplement levels was increased in the diets. Significantly higher litter weight at birth and litter weight at weaning (P<0.05) were found for rabbits offered 40 g CAC/day for litter one. Litter sizes at birth, milk yield and daily weight gain of does were significantly higher (1,0.05) in the CAC40 and CAC50 dietary treatments for both litters. A comparison of results between the two litters showed that litter weight at weaning, milk yield and daily gain of kitten were significantly higher for the litter two, however being higher daily gain of does for litter one (P<0.05). It was concluded that at supplement level of 40g cassava chip had better reproductive performance and gave higher economic returns for Californian does.
Nguyen Van Thu, Nguyen Thi Kim Dong, 2013b. Effect of Supplementation Levels of Coconut Cake on Reproductive Performance of Californian Rabbit Fed Basal Diets of Para Grass (Brachiaria mutica) in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 154-159.
A study was implemented on 30 Californian does by using a complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 6 replications to evaluate their reproductive performance over two litters. The supplementation levels were 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g coconut cake/day and /doe were corresponding to the C010, C015, CO20, CO25 and CO30 treatments. The does were fed Para grass ad libitum, while other feed ingredients were fed at the same levels in different treatments : Operculia turpethum leaves 200 g, tofu waste 200 g and soybean meal 25 g/day. The results showed that the average dry matter intakes (DMI) of the does in different treatments in the first litter was similar (P>0.05) and were from 130 to 144 g/doe/day, however in the second litter these were significantly different (P<0.05) with highest value (156 g) for the CO25 treatment and the lowest one (137 g) was for the C010 treatment. The average crude protein intakes (CPI) of the first litter were significantly different (P<0.05) with the highest value (30.4 g/doe/day) of CO25 treatment, while in the second litter these were not significantly different (P>0.05) and were from 29.6 to 32.5 g/doe/day. The average metabolizable energy intakes (MEI) were significantly different (P<0.05) in both two litters and had a tendency of the increase MEI for the treatments when supplementing coconut cake. The litter sizes at birth and at weaning were higher for the CO20 and CO25 treatments and the daily milk yield was increased (P<0.05) when supplementing the coconut cake in both two litters. These criteria in litter 2 was tendentiously higher than in the litter 1. It was concluded that under feeding conditions of present study supplementing 20 g coconut cake per doe per day gave better reproductive performance of the Californian rabbit.
Lukiwati D.R., 2013. Alfalfa as Forage Crop for Rabbits. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 160-161
Alfalfa (lucerne) is important forage legume as protein and mineral source for ruminant and pseudo-ruminant (rabbit) productivity in Indonesia. Rabbits have the ability to utilize forage materials, and exploiting this attribute will be of advantage to local producers who may not be able to afford the cost of commercial diets. Earlier studies indicates that expensive and imported feedstuff can be substituted with local forages containing high protein and minerals in example alfalfa. Alfalfa, rich in protein, minerals and vitamins can be harvested for hay, haylage, green-chop, or by grazing. However, alfalfa contains water-soluble substance that are toxic. A strategy to reduce the risk of toxic will be presented in the review article: hay making .
Haryati T., Raharjo Y.C., Susanna I.W.R., 2013. Effects of Fiber Levels and Curcuma Levels on The Growth Performance and Incident of Enteritis of Weanling Rabbits. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 162-172
High incidence of diarrhoea in weanling rabbits caused high rate of mortality. Diarrhoea or enteritic problem in rabbits is wally triggered by the increase population of pathogenic bacteria in the caecum. This population may, however be controlled by high dietary level of indigestible fiber, and low protein and carbohydrate, and also by some feed additives that have bacteriostatic and peristaltic regulation properties, including herbals. Among them, Curcuma (Curcuma longa) has been reported to have curing effect on the diarrhoea in human. In this experiment, levels of dietary fiber and curcuma is studied. Three levels of dietary fiber (12, 14 and 16%) and four levels of curcuma (0.0 - 0.1 - 0.2 and 0.3% air basis). All treatments contained 13% crude fiber, 17% cude protein and 2500 to 2550 kcal/kg DE. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicates, each of 5 weanling rabbits (about 650 ± 50 g initial body weight). Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Measurements were made on body weight, bodyweight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, mortality, carcass percentage and digestibility of dry matter. Results showed that higher crude fiber reduced the feed consumption, bodyweight, bodyweight gain, feed efficiency and also digestibility of dry matter and slightly decrease the carcass percentage. Some of them did cause significant differences. No interaction were detected among levels of fiber and curcuma. Curcuma has a slight beneficial effects on the body weight gain and also survivability of the animals, but not on the other parameteres measured. Crude fiber levels of 14 and 16% at 0.2% curcuma in the diet gave the highest bodyweight gain and lowest rate of mortality.
Gidenne T., Le Floc'h N., Martin O., Oswald I., Combes S., 2013. Impact of feed restriction and of the hygiene of housing on rabbit performances and health. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 173-175.
Limiting the post-weaning intake of the young rabbit is known to improve its resistance to digestive troubles, while poor hygiene of housing is supposed to have a negative impact on performances and health. These two factors have been studied in a 2 X 2 factorial design: free intake "AL" or restricted at 70% of AL, and high or low hygiene of housing. The poor hygiene of housing was obtained by avoiding cleaning the room before and during the experiment. This experimental design was applied to four groups of 105 rabbits, fed a pelleted experimental diet. They were housed in two rooms (control and poor hygiene) and in collective cages, from weaning (28 days) to slaughter (63 days). No significant interactions were found between the two main factors, restriction and hygiene, for performances and health parameters. With a 30% reduced intake the weight gain was meanly reduced by 16% ( 41.7 vs 49.9g/day from 28 to 63 days old, P<0.001). Accordingly, the feed conversion was sharply improved for restricted rabbit groups by 16% (2.11 vs 2.47 from 28 to 63 days old, P<0.001). The level of housing hygiene did not modify significantly the growth, although the post weaning growth tended to be lower during the two weeks after weaning (41.3 vs 42.6 g/days, P = 0.09). The feed conversion was surprisingly better for rabbit housed with a poor level of hygiene (2.25 vs 2.30 from 28 to 63 days old, P = 0.03) sourcing from a slightly lower intake (103.2 vs 107.0 g/days, P = 0.02). Over the whole experiment (28 to 63 days old), the mortality rate was relatively low (11%) suggesting a relatively good health status. Although the number of rabbits was insufficient to reach substantial conclusions about the health impact, we detected a positive impact of the feed restriction on the mortality rate during the post-weaning period (28-40 days old): 1.9 vs 6.2% (P = 0.046). For the whole growth period, restriction of low hygiene did not affect significantly the mortality rate, although we recorded the highest mortality for the rabbits fed freely in poor hygiene housing (15 dead rabbts/105).
Brahmantiyo B., Raharjo Y.C., Prasetyo L.H. , 2013. Productivity of Flemish Giant Cross (Fz-3) as Broiler Rabbit . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 179-184
Flemish Giant cross (FZ-3) rabbit has been developed to contain blood ratio of 37.5% of Flemish Giant and 62.5% of Reza (crossbred of Rex and Satin rabbit) and is expected to become a superior broiler rabbit. A total of 280 heads of FZ-3 rabbits were produced and evaluated for their does and kits productivity. FZ-3 doe has good productivity in litter size at birth (6.85±1.27 kits). The weaning weight of kit was 753 ± 171 g /head, and body weight at age of 10 weeks was 1325 ±317 g/head, while its adult weight was 3334 ±427 g/head. Carcass percentage of FZ-3 rabbit slaughtered at 10 weeks was 43.85%, while the proportion of commercial cuts of loin and hindquarter was 60.69%.
Nuraini H, Brahmantiyo B., Sumantri C, Irine E.A., 2013. The Use of Cytochrome B Gene as A Marker for Meat Rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) Authentication. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 185-189.
Identification of origin species as meat source is very important to ensure the food safety. A suitable technique to identify the source of species was using multiplex PCR, with more than one primer used together for amplification of multiple target regions. This study was to develop specific primer derived from cytochrome b sequences in the Lagomorphs order, Oryctolagus spp. in order to be used as marker for authentication material. Sources of DNA used in this study were blood samples from cat (Felis catus), meat derived from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and chickens (Gallus gallus), and the variety of meat products i.e. meatball, corned meat and sausage. DNA was extracted from meat samples using phenol-chloroform method. The detection of authentication through multiplex PCR approach using specific primer. Amplification of cyt b gene in three species of animals with a length of the different fragments indicated the specificity of cyt b gene sequences of each species. Amplified fragment length for rabbit, chickens and cat were 537, 227 and 568 bp, respectively. Test mixtures of DNA were prepared by adding 0.1 - 1 and 5% levels of rabbit to chickens meat. The results indicated that the species of meat in various combinations can be accurately determined by PCR. It is concluded that primers from cyt b gene using multiplex PCR can be useful for fast, easy and reliable control of food safety and violation of labeling requirements
Liu Y., Qin F.-Y., Bao G.-L., Wei Q., Ji Q.-A., Yao H.-C., Xiao C.-W., 2013. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Outer Membrane Proteins of Bordetella bronchiseptica. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 193-198
Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) is an important pathogen in rabbits and is associated with a respiratory infectious disease, which is long lasting, repeatable and difficult to cure. Serious economic losses in rabbit husbandry are caused by the disease. The outer membrane (OM) is the barrier between a bacteria and the environment. Bb OMPs possibly contain virulence factors associated with disease. Proteomics that combines 2-DE with mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool to study the virulence factors of pathogenic microorganisms. In this research, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) proteomics profiles were compared in two Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) strains, HB and RB. Bb strains were isolated from an infectious rhinitis rabbit and a healthy rabbit, respectively. The 50% lethal dose value (LD50) in mice of strain HB was 2.42.106 cfu/ml, while mice infected with RB had low mortalities. The OMPs were extracted by sodium carbonate treatment, and analyzed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The 2-DE gels of OMPs showed mostly protein spots ranging from 40 kDa to 70 kDa. 140 protein spots in RB and 187 in HB gels were detected. Among these proteins, 14 spots of RB showed lower intensity than the corresponding spot of HB, while 5 spots showed higher intensity. Moreover, 5 protein spots were observed only in HB. Different Protein spots were cut out and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Combined peptide mass fingerprinting PMF and MS/MS queries were carried out by the MASCOT search engine 2.2. The theoretical PI/Mw of proteins were computed by the PI/Mw tool ( pi/), the functional categories of the identified proteins of Bb were sorted using COGnitor ( xognitor.html) and the subcellular location was predicted by PSORTb v.3.0 psort ( These identified proteins belong to different classes: cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; cell motility and secretion; inorganic ion transport and metabolism; energy production and conversion; amino acid transport and metabolism; translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; function unknown proteins and NO related COG. In conclusion, in our research, OMPs of two different virulence strains of Bb were analyzed via 2-DE and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS, in order to screen virulence proteins of Bb and find novel proteins associated with virulence. These identified proteins may be associated with virulence of Bb, however these findings still need further studies.
Wu L.., Ju R.-H.., Liu L.-X., 2013. Comparative Advantages and Competitiveness of Chinese Rabbit Sector . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 199-206
Since the 1990s, Chinese rabbit industry has been experiencing a fast growth. Due to saving land and feed grain, less investment and easy to manage, rabbit farms have attracted more and more farmers, in consequence, the rabbit industry keeps high in growth rate. From 2001 to 2010, Chinese rabbit meat production surged from 406 thousand tons to 690 thousand tons, the growth rate reaches 70%, while pork production increased only by 25%, beef by 28% and poultry by 37%. Based on the theory of comparative advantages and competitiveness, by cost-benefit analysis and the market share analysis, this paper analyzed the rabbit industrial competitiveness in both domestic and intemational markets. Theoretically, the rabbit industrial competitiveness includes potential competitiveness and revealed competitiveness. The potential competitiveness, also referring to the comparative advantages, mainly comes from the superiorities of rabbit meat, rabbit fur and rabbit skin, resource endowment and technological progress. Revealed competitiveness refers to performance in markets. It shows that there is a relatively large increase in rabbit meat production. The production growth is mainly driven by demand, and the increased demand is mainly caused by preference change due to the food safety problems of other meats. It shows that the profit margin of rabbit-raising is higher than others except for pig, however, if taking government subsidy into account, it would be higher than pig-raising. From the international perspective, this paper used data from UN-Comtrade database to study market share of Chinese rabbit meat. It shows that Chinese rabbit industries possess stronger competitiveness. The prices of live rabbit and rabbit meat in China are the lowest among major rabbit producing countries, thus China has significant price advantage in rabbit industry. In conclusion, rabbit meat has incomparable nutritional advantages when compared with other animal products (pork, beef and poultry). As to rabbit technology and productivity, China has been achieving great progress. From perspective of international competitiveness, Chinese rabbit stock accounted for more than 30% of the world total In recent years, the slaughter rabbit and rabbit meat output both accounted for more than 40% of world total, with meat output reached 45%. Compared with the developed EU countries, Chinese rabbit industry is still in its early stage, it still faces certain challenges, including the increasing cost of feed and labor, slow advances in technology and less developed processing and marketing ability of rabbit processing countries and traders. Finally, some policy suggestions are provided to improve rabbit industry development.
Zhang X.Y., Li C.Y., Zhang C.X., Zheng J., Yang .C, Li Q., Kuang L..D, Ren Y.J., Guo Z.Q., Deng X.D., Chen T.B., Lei M., Huang D.P., Xie X.H., 2013. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Rabbit Toll-Like Receptor 4 Gene . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 207-211.
TLR4 could detect Gram-negative bacteria by identifying lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipid A; therefore, we think that TLR4 is a significant candidate gene for rabbit diseases resistance research. In this study, we have detected the genetic polymorphisms of TLR4 of 13 meat rabbits of 4 different breeds. DNA samples of 13 unrelated rabbits from 4 breeds (New Zealand White, Californian, Flemish Giant and Fu Jian Yellow) were extracted from whole-venous blood and readily stored at -20°C. 4 were Californian, 4 were Fu Jian Yellow, 3 were New Zealand White, 2 were Flemish Giant. Comparative sequence analysis indicated that 6 SNPs were identified, 5 of which were non-synonymous SNPs. Four nonsynonymous SNPs (G563A, G628T, A653C and A654C) were located in the LRR domains of the predicted protein. The nonsynonymous SNPs in the LRR domains, especially related to leucine residues, may dramatically alter the ability to identified extracellular pathogens. Besides, it is possible that these replacements in amino acids in TLR4, which change the amino acid characteristics, will change their extracellular pathogen recognition capabilities. The identification of these polymorphisms reported here increases the resource of genetic markers useful for mapping and association analyses with disease resistance. And the future researches are needed to survey any potential associations.
Wu L., Wu F.H., Li Y., Zhang, Z.G., 2013. Effect of the Different Dressing Procedures and Tanning Methods on Breaking Strength of Rabbit Hair . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 212-216.
Hair keratin is a type of keratin that is a structural protein found in hair and nails. A mass of chemical reagent are used for different processes and tanning methods, including acid, alkali and oxidizing agent and reducing agent, which can react with keratin, consequently, altering the structure of hair. This article measures the breaking strength and breaking elongation rate of rabbit hair by different processing procedures and tanning methods. The results show that the different processing procedures reduced the breaking strength of rabbit hair. The extent of the devastation was different from the procedures. Bating and pickling process was the most important effect. The different tanning methods could improve the breaking strength of guard hair. The effect of chrome tanning and fatty aldehyde tanning was significant. Subsequently these results provide a theoretical basis for effective modification to rabbit hair, which could help to reduce the damage to hair during tanned process.
Hojjat H., Parikh B., Grobner M., 2013. A Rapid Method of Detecting Pasteurella multocida in Rabbits from Nasal Swabs Using PCR . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 217-218.
Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic coccobacillus that is an important pathogen in rabbits. Current methods for detecting P. multocida infection in rabbits involves culturing nasal swabs on blood agar followed by biochemical analysis for definitive identification. PCR has been used to identify P. multocida from colonies grown on plates. A rapid PCR test involving direct PCR of nasal swabs was investigated. Nasopharyngeal cultures were streaked onto TSA with 5% sheep blood and incubated for 24 hours for biochemical identification of P. multocida. The swab was then digested in Buccal Amp® and extended using Brilliant® SYBRO Green QPCR Master Mix. We found a strong correlation between PCR positive and culture positive identification for P. multocida. PCR positive was indicated by a green florescence at 584 nm. while individual colonies were positive for a biochemical panel specific to P. multocida. Based on these data, we conclude that PCR of nasopharyngeal swabs can be used as a rapid, direct method for detecting P. multocida.
Baihaqi M, Kumiawan Y, Rahayu S, Nuraini H., 2013. Carcass and Non-Carcass Composition of Fryer Fattened with Pellets Containing Bean Sprouts' Waste . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 221-224
Bean sprouts are vegetable that common as cuisine in some Asia countries. The product is made from the greenish-capped mung beam. The byproduct of bean sprouts process is commonly useless and disposed as waste. This research was conducted to study carcass and non carcass composition of local rabbit fryer fattened with feed containing of beans sprouts waste (BSW) for substitute commercial feed. Twelve kits were fattened for eight weeks with treatments of commercial feed (control), 15, 30 and 45% of BSW. The trials feed were blended with commercial feed and formed as pellets. The observed variables of carcass consist of slaughter weight, carcass percentage, weight and percentage of rabbit commercial cuts and non carcass components. The results showed that addition of BSW until 45% did not significantly affected on both carcass and non carcass composition (P>0.05). Weight and percentage of commercial rabbit cut carcass were also not significant in all commercial cut (foreleg, rack, loin and hind leg). Distribution of carcass components (muscle, fat and bone) were also not significantly among treatments (P>0.05). It could be concluded that bean sprouts' waste could be substitute commercial rabbit feed until 45% without decreasing carcass and non carcass quality.
Suradi K., Yurmiati H., Mikusuma T., 2013. Electric Stimulation of Rabbit Carcass Toward Meat Pshysical Characteristic on Various Aging Time. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 225-228.
Rabbit which was slaughtered at old age would produce less tender meat. Aging is one of the ways to increase meat tenderness and one of them is through electric stimulation The aim of this research is to know the effect of long aging of rabbit carcass which stimulated by electric on meat physical characteristics. The measured variables were pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss and mechanical tenderness (penetrometer needle). This research was done using 30 male Flemish Giant rabbits with the age of 1.5 years. Rabbit was slaughtered and the carcass was stimulated by electric. Then the carcass was kept at refrigeration temperature of aging (15-18°C) for 0 hour (without aging as control), 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 hours as treatment in a Completely Randomized Design experiment with 4 replicates. The result of this research showed that the best physical characteristic (pH (6.96=>5.59), water holding capacity (67.34=>14.70%), cooking loss (18.5=>29.75%) and tenderness (96.2 =>154.8 gram/10 sec)) was obtained in 10 hours aging (values for 0 => 10h of aging)
Herawati T., 2013. Correlation Between Consumer Characteristics and Preferences of Rabbit Meat Consumption. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 229-235.
Food security is one of the pillars of the power of a country. But now, there has been a significant increase in the price of some food. Therefore, it is important to accept the suggestion of research results indicate the presence of some food choices that have good nutrition for human health. One of them is a rabbit meat that has been known to have the characteristics of nutrient levels better than other animal protein sources. The problem is that the number of rabbit meat consumers are still low. Therefore, research has been conducted to determine the factors that affect the level of preference in the rabbit meat. Factors that observed consumer characteristics that X1. Gender/Sex; X2. Age; X3. Ethnic; X4 Type of Work; X5 Religion; X6 Education; X7 Married or not; X8 Willing to eat meat rabbits. Respondents consisted of a variety of people with different chracteristi.. The seventh factor of X1 to X7 had been tested whether has high correlation with X5, using factors analysis and eigen value. Results showed that all of variables has MSA value 0.618> 0.5 and Chi-square value of Bartlett's test of Sphericity 206.043 with a significance level of P<0.05. Furthermore, the eigenvalues obtained three variables that play a role in determining the level of preference on rabbit meat that X1 Gender may explain the diversity of 43.9%, X2 Age 17.8% and Ethnic 14.4%. While variables Work, Religion, Education, or Married or not, has no effect on the consumption of rabbit meat.

Hartono P., 2013. Roles of Rabbit Meat in Strengthening Food Supply in an Attempt to Alleviate Food Shortage for Parents and Children. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 236-237.
Data from Riset Kesehatan Dasar shows that Indonesia still have four major nutrition problems: protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM), vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency, and nutritional anemia. These problems are widespread throughout Indonesia, although regional, ecological and cultural differences that affect food availability and consumption. The most basic is inadequate intake of protein and calories, causing under nutrition problems like: wasting, stunting and under weight. Lack of protein in Indonesia is the result of a combination of factors, mainly inadequate production; availability and inequitable distribution of foods and insufficient awareness of nutritional needs, and poor food habits, due lack of nutritional education. BPS survey (2012) shows that food consumption of semis in Indonesia reach 91.9% of recommended dietarry allowances (RDA) and fat 116% (more than RDA), protein and vegetable consumption less than RDA. Low purchasing power to buy a good quality of protein with low cost price compounded with low education and knowledge make the malnutrition problem in Indonesia became worst. In the same time some Indonesian people currently getting over weight till obese, due lack of nutrition education and wrong nutritional behavior (nutritional double burden problem). Nevertheless Indonesian community has a good habitual on consumption of carbohydrate, protein and vegetable, but less on quantity and quality - especially the protein and vegetable. Income, knowledge and food availability is the factors influence to the consumption. We have an opportunity to promote rabbit meat as high quality animal sources food as an alternative to overcome the high cost of beef meat. Rabbit meat is very good for health. Efficacy of rabbit meat can lower cholesterol and heart disease. Rabbit meat is an alternative food for people who have heart disease or high cholesterol relative. However, the rabbit has not been so popular. "In fact, the nutritional quality better than other meat," said Dr. Yono C. Raharjo of Ciawi Livestock Research Center, Bogor. Low cholesterol and sodium content makes rabbit meat is highly recommended as a food for patients with heart disease, the elderly, and those with problems with excess weight.
Sumanto D., Juarini E., Raharjo Y.C., Herawati T. , 2013. Rabbits Business Program of Rural Farmers in Indonesia (Preliminary Study for the Economic Empowerment) . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 238-244..
Various models of farmer empowering program have a significant role in the improvement of the economic conditions of farmers in rural areas. Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP) has conducted "demonstration plot" of technology innovation of rabbits to selected groups of farmers in the village breeding centers, in Jambi, North Sulawesi, and Bali in 2012. To support the demonstration plot, rabbit breeds (150 does and 20 bucks), feed and some other equipment were given to each location. Training to the groups of farmers on feeding, breeding, housing, institutional groups was conducted before rabbits delivered. The farmer groups also participate in supporting the animal house building. All of the demonstration sites are located at an altitude of 800-1400 m above sea level and potentially producing vegetables and grass for ensuring the availability of feed. The rabbit breeds given in each location are New Zealand White, Rex, Crossing rabbits. The development of the rabbit population cannot all be monitored properly in each location, because of various delivering time for instance due to the administration problem in Bali, that only held recently in December 2012. In North Sulawesi rabbit mortality rate seem quite high mostly occurred during the delivery time: 2-16 head and after birth 56 head dead (before weaning) although a high birth rate (120 head) occurred. Economic empowerment of farmers in three locations seem unreal yet and need time- except in Jambi, because there are many issues to be addressed, such as technical issues, location, and other management problem. It seems that technology assistance is still needed, as well as apprentice for management and also monitoring and evaluation activities.
Sumanto D., 2013. Financial Analysis of Rabbit Breeding in Various Scale. 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 245-250...
One of the business structure of the industry building is rabbits breeding, which is generally considered to be less profitable and the business is rarely taken seriously in demand by farmers, but other business areas such as fattening of rabbit, collectors, and post-harvest seems more desirable be.use it can provide a profit margin better. To see how far the rabbit breeding value gains in rural, financial analysis has been carried out by applying a factor of production values of the average laboratory and field results at several places in Indonesia in 2012. Important results of the technical aspects as follows: birth age to the first mating 6 months, littering interval 2 months, litter size 6 heads, productivity of does 65%, mortality by 4 months of age 20%. Aspect of feed is: parent or buck 100 g/head/day, pregnant does 125 g/head/day, lactating does 200 g/head/day and post weaning- 50 g/head/day. price of concentrate feed of IDR 4,500, per kg, rabbits for breeds IDR 300,000 per head, rabbits for meat IDR 50,000,-/head, pre-weaning rabbits IDR 25,000 /head, candidate breed (4 months) IDR 100.000 per head, disposed does IDR 70,000 /head. Individual rabbit cage IDR 125.000 each. Labor is familly. Business management is: a/ Third bom female candidates. for its breeds and 20% for does replacement, the rest is sold, b/. 4 months old rabbit male is sale, and c/ The main feed is concentrates and grass used as feed supplement. Results obtained assuming from .calculating all asset value and assuming all rabbits sold. By using the initial scale rabbit (20 does +3 bucks (Scale 1) to 130 does + 20 bucks (scale 2)), then the population dynamics of rabbits for 2 years is: a/. Scale 1: disposed rabbits are 22 head, kits 120 heads candidate breed are 29 heads, for replacement stock are 15 heads and the number of sales are 504 heads candidates breeds and are 59 heads. b/ Scale 2: disposed rabbits are 144 heads, kits 783 heads, candidate breed are 190 heads, for replacement stock are 95 heads and the number of sales are 3,924 heads and candidates breeds are 348. By using Df = 12%, IRR results for scale 1 and 2 are 35.46% and 61.93% respectively, the B/C ratio scale 1 and 2 are: 1.09 and 1.23 respectively. Value of IRR in all scale conditions is more than 12%., so that this business is called "bankable".
Gidenne T., 2013. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 253
Full text of this paper was published few weeks after the conference in the Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Science Vol. 23 (4) 195-213 
Two centuries ago, Heinrich Einhof develops the so-called Weende method, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre" (Van Soest & Mc Queen 1973). Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deals with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, etc.), and recovers a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins) or polylipidic compounds (cutins). Dietary fibre is generally defined as the polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of the differ. constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbiota that relates to performances and digestive health. Our review will consider briefly the definition and structure of the different classes of fibre and of cell wall constituents, followed by a description of some analytical methods employed for animal feeds. Secondly and as an example, the nutritional role and impact of fibre intake on digestive health will be described for the growing rabbit, since as a monogastric herbivore this animal is a very pertinent research model, and is of interest for meat production in western-Mediterranean and east countries.
Qin Y.H., 2013. The Current Status and Development of Rabbit Industry in China (abstract) . 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 254
With the rapid development of China's economy, rabbit fanning has become an important measure to improve fanning income, especially in impoverished areas. In recent years, the Chinese rabbit industry has achieved great progress, not only through the increase in the output of rabbit products, but also the significant improvements in rabbit farming technology. From 2001 to 2011, rabbit meat production in China increased from 406,000 tom to 731,000 tom, accounting for an average annual rabbit meat growth rate of 7.98% over ten years. Conversely, over the same time period, the average annual growth rate for pork, beef, poultry, and sheep meat were 2.47%, 2.73%, 4.12%, 4.50%, respectively. Consequently, the percentage of rabbit meat compared to all animal meat increased from 0.66% in 2001 to 0.92% in 2011. However, accompanying the good performance of China's rabbit industry, a number of realistic challenges must be faced. The global economic crisis of recent years has impacted the export of Chinese rabbit products, and the increase in the price of foodstuff and labor will inevitably affect the income and profit of those involved in the rabbit industry. In developed areas of China, strict emission controls require the construction of high standard rabbitries to meet environment requirements. In addition, the extreme temperature changes in northern and southern China during summer and winter negatively impact rabbit reproductive performance. The quality and supply of rough feed, as well as disproportionate rabbit production in different areas, causes dramatic product price fluctuations. These factors have motivated farmers and companies to search for effective solutions. Due to the diversity in local environments, feed material supplies, rabbit production organizations, even different economic cultural traditions, various provinces and areas have developed different strategies to deal with feed supply and the frequently changing market. Farmers and companies have adopted their own improvements and increased their flexibility to meet the needs of the consumer in order to realize their goals, such as high efficiency or high product quality to gain profit. The Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Shandong and Zhejiang represent three typical rabbit industry models. Rabbit science research, innovation and new technology play important roles in increasing the sustainability of rabbit farming and transforming it into a competitive industry. Problem-solution driven studies and development, cooperation in rabbit production and research, large scale training, and government encouragement and support are critical. Fostering and developing the Chinese domestic market is becoming increasingly important and should be a long-term mission of this industry.
Brenès-Soto A., 2013. Development of Rabbit Production in Costa Rica (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 255-256.
Usually rabbits are thought as pet so, there is little tradition in consuming rabbit meat, and thereafter a restricted number of slaughterhouses cause incipient meat distribution and market alternatives. The Costa Rican rabbit production is carried out through small/average farms. Farms raise crossbred animal, mainly involving New Zealand White breed with Californian, Chinchilla, Palomino, Rex and English Spot. Also, rabbits have been used as laboratory animals and even pets, which caused new breeds introduction and new production goals in the country. The lack of official slaughterhouses is another reason for the unexpressive rabbit meat commercialization. The producers sometimes feel discouraged to invest in the activity. The absence of an efficient productive chain causes small or average producers to commercialize their products in informal markets. Family rabbit production is a strategy at small and middle scale. The growing of backyard rabbit rearing was started back in the 1900's. With this system, the farmer and his family can count on a better quality protein source and, at the same time, commercialize the surpluses in the markets and another part of the population mainly the urban has access to this. In 2000 was registered the largest export of rabbit meat in the entire decade, where the majority of the product was sent to Nicaragua and Hong Kong (38,05 and 26,58 ton per year respectively). By 2003, the commercialization of rabbit meat was controlled by one organized-group named Carnes Sanas, producing 300 kg meat/week and then increasing up to 25 ton/month. Therefore, another group, Ticonejo, made an alliance with Carnes Sanas and raised the production, but after one year the group stopped their activities. In 2008 the exports to Nicaragua were maintained with a volume of 16,67 ton, United States of America with 25,86 ton and small quantities to Colombia (1,82 ton) and Panama (0,85 ton). From that year to 2010, the producers started to abandon the production because of the lack of solutions to sustain the rabbit breeding activity. Several farms survived like small or mediums systems, and only one kept an important market in the country. Important difficulties related to the commercialization appeared because of the falling demand of rabbits for exportation and a domestic market without development. The target market in Costa Rica then changed trying to enhance the national consumption. At this moment, 20% of the total market belong to two big farms which sell meat to two big chains of supermarkets and keeping farms with an average of 300 does and a meat production around 450 kg meat/month; 60% of farms have between 25 to 60 does, distributing the product in restaurants, hotels and retail, meanwhile the remaining 20% belongs to small systems with 5-10 does. Medium and small farmers can obtain 20 -200 kg/month. Pet producers maintain from 30 to 240 does from different breeds, and genetics producers have from 20 10 60 does. The majority of rabbits' farms are located in rural areas far from San Jose, the capital. More than 80% of rabbit population is found in high lands of the country, characterized by moderate climates (except in the coast), fertile ground and agriculture based in small properties, predominantly familiar. Recently a flagrant demand from high cuisine and touristic industry claimed market organization and suggest production growth. Although there's not a national policy established to stimulate the rabbit production, the government through the National Service of Animal Health (SENASA), has the responsibility to supervise these farms working on the sanitary control and the implementation of a unique register of producers and breeders. As a high percentage of the farms are medium, many of them use alternative forages to supplement the concentrate basis diets and low costs. Species used include tropical forage sources with high percentage of soluble or insoluble fiber, like nacedero (Trichanthera gigantea), morera (Morus alba), churristate (Ipomoea purpurea), poro (Erhthrina spp.) and grazes like kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum), estrella (Cynodon plectostachium), transvala (Digitaria decumbens). Almost all systems transform rabbit manure in compost high in organic matter, nitrogen, calcium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese, using the compost in crops' fertilization, for example coffee, cabbage and potato, among others. The Costa Rican rabbit production system is a viable alternative to the high quality meat production at small and middle scale, with ecological management quite useful due to its application in other regions of the continent. The Animal Science Department started the Alternative Livestock Program in 2008, and since then it is developing research and extension projects about rabbit production in Costa Rica, as well as stimulating the rabbit meat consumption through tasting session, giving information about meat nutritional characteristics, and showing to the consumers the differences between rabbits for meat production and rabbits for keeping as pets. Despite all the effective problems it is perfectly possible to exceed the cumml barriers starting with marketing politics for the sector and quality product improvement in the market, with added information for cooking. Rabbit production should be recognized as an activity with low ambient impact and that can be associated to other productive activities using agroindustry residues and other agricultural byproducts. In change, it will provide high speed of weight gain and expressive reproductive indices.
Goby J.P., Huck C., Fortun-Lamothe L., Gidenne T., 2013. Intake Growth and Digestion of The Growing Rabbit Fed Alfalfa Hay or Green Whole Carrot: First Results (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 257
As an herbivorous animal, it is relevant to use plants or vegetable sources in rabbit rearing, and more particularly by vegetable products non concurrent of the human feeding. However most of the data on rabbit nutrition were obtained with pelleted feeds containing dehydrated and grinded raw materials. The carrot, as whole plant, is readily available in area producing carrots for human consumption, since over the half of the carrot production is not calibrated for canning factory and is considered as wastes. We thus aimed to measure, with the direct method, the digestibility for two fibre sources, either in a dried form (alfalfa hay) or under a green form (whole carrot discarding , root + leaves). We also aimed to measure the performances of the rabbit: growth, health and intake capacity. A trial was conducted at the experimental farm of the Perpignan University (IUT), France, to assess the performances and digestion (direct method) of the growing rabbit fed hay or green vegetable source: alfalfa hay (AH) and green whole carrot (GWC). The GWC was collected every two days, in fresh form from production wastes of one farm (area of Perpignan). The alfalfa hay (2d cut, sun dried) was produced in the area of Perpignan (Ariege). At weaning (40 days), 3 groups of 5 rabbits (crossbred line, NZW.x Cal. x PS119) were homed individually in metabolism cages, and were fed ad libitum the pelleted feeds till 49d old, as an adaptation period to the cages. Then, two groups were fed either the alfalfa hay or the GWC as a sole feed, and one group remained to be fed with the pelleted diet (control group: C). Faecal collections were achieved individually after a 7days adaptation period to the feeds and lasted 11d, from 56 to 67d old. The dry matter content of the GWC is low compared to that of AH or to pellets (C). AH and GWC are well balanced feeds in terms of fibre and protein content, and could be given as a sole feed to the rabbit to measure directly their digestibility. The intake level of the control group (C) were in agreement with classical data obtained on a commercial pelleted feed. For the GWC, and after a 7 days adaptation period, the intake capacity of the 8 weeks old rabbit was very high, since they were able to ingest more than 600g of this green fodder per day and per rabbit, corresponding to 40% of their live-weight. Even, during this period, every morning, feeders of the group GWC were alway empty; thus suggesting that the maximum threshold for the intake capacity was not reached. In contrast, the intake capacity for the alfalfa hay was relatively low (84g/d), even after a 7d adaptation period. The bulking capacity of the hay (high for the rabbit) may explain this moderate intake. Expressed as DM intake, GWC ranged before the AIL but remained 40% below the intake of a pellets. Moreover, during the adaptation period (49 to 56d old), the feed intake was probably lower for GWC and AH. However, from 56 to 67 d old were registered a positive growth for the AH and GWC groups (12 and 15 g/d resp.), while the growth of the control group was meanly of 54 g/d. The DM digestibility of GWC averaged 86%. The digestion of AH was moderate (56%) and relatively variable. In conclusion, the rabbit showed a very high intake capacity for a green fodder such the whole carrot. The intake capacity for alfalfa hay was moderate and required an adaptation period.
Song W.P., Li W.P.Qin Y.H., 2013. Effects of Dietary Arginine Supplementation During Whole Pregnancy on The Reproductive Performance and Plasma Biochemical Parameters of Rabbit Does (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 258
The effect of dietary arginine supplementation during whole pregnancy (from day 0 to 31 of gestation) on the reproductive performance and plasma biochemical parameters of rabbit does was studied. A total of 223 good body condition Hyla parent rabbit does with body weights of 4268 ± 206 g were assigned randomly into three groups based on body weight, representing the control, 0.4% Arg treatment, and 0.8% Arg treatment. The control rabbits were fed a basal diet, the 0.4% Arg rabbits were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.4% L-arginine, and the 0.8% Arg rabbits were fed the same basal diet supplemented with 0.8% L-arginine. Reproductive performance, feed intake and body weight changes in the rabbits, as well as plasma amino acids, urea, NO, T-NOS concentration on days 0, 10, 20 of gestation were measured. The results showed that dietary supplementation with L-arginine during the whole pregnancy markedly enhanced the reproductive performance of rabbit does. Compared with the control group, 0.4% Arg supplementation increased live-born kits by 1.28 per litter (P>0.05), litter birth weight of all kits born alive by 78.4 g per litter (P>0.05), litter birth weight of all kits born by 39.17 g per litter (P>0.05); For rabbits in the 0.8% Arg supplementation group, kits born alive increased by 2.21 per litter compared with the control group (P<0.01), litter birth weight of all kits born alive increased by 142.86 g per litter (P<0.01), litter birth weight of all kits bom increased by 111.33 g per litter (P<0.01), and there was a significant improvement compared with the control group. There were no significant differences for the other parameters, such as total number of kits born, number of kits bom dead, litter birth weight of all kits bom dead, and average birth weight of kits born alive, between treatment groups (P>0.05). Moreover, compared with the control group, 0.8% Arg supplementation sharply increased the average daily feed intake of the rabbits by 20.89 g per day (P>0.05). On day 0 of gestation, the plasma indicators did not differ among the three treatment groups. On day 10 of gestation, 0.4% Arg supplementation markedly increased plasma arginine, glycine, hydroxyproline, NO, T-NOS concentrations (P<0.05), and 0.8% Arg supplementation markedly increased plasma arginine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, glycine, ornithine, hydroxyproline, urea, NO, T-NOS concentrations (P<0.05), but both arginine supplementation groups showed a marked decrease in plasma phenylalanine concentration (P<0.05). On day 20 of gestation, 0.4% Arg supplementation markedly decreased plasma alanine concentration (P = 0.004), and 0.8% Arg supplementation markedly increased plasma arginine and ornithine concentrations (P<0.05), while other biochemical indexes did not differ (P>0.05). Therefore, dietary supplementation with arginine during whole pregnancy could improve the number of kits born alive, live litter birth weight and total litter birth weight, as well as the metabolism of amino acids in the blood and an increase in the synthesis of NO and the expression of T-NOS.
Hamed A. M., Amal A.M.E., El-Bakrey R.M.M., 2013. A Review of Rabbit Diseases in Egypt (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 259
Full text of this paper was published few weeks after the conference in the Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Science Vol. 23 (4) 185-194 
Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry in a trial to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013) in the light of available national literature. The most breeds that are reared in Egyptian rabbit farms are floundering, Belgian, French, Erks, Hy-plus, Native, New Zealand, Chinchilla, Gabali and Moshtohor. The system of housing of rabbits was battery and ground breeding systems. Enteritis in rabbits has many causes parasitic and bacterial causes are the commonly recorded in Egypt. Clostridium species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella species and all they usually were isolated from young rabbits. Rabbit industry is promising in Egypt to be developed. A national committee consisting of representatives of agencies with legislative responsibility for assessing and improving rabbit industry should be established
Fang S.,Cui P., Gu X., Liu X., Suo X., 2013. Selection of a precocious line of Eimeria magna and evaluation of it as a vaccine component (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 260
Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease in rabbits. Young rabbits are usually infected with several coccidia species in the genus of Eimeria, resulting in diarrhea, weight loss, and death. Although chemotherapy has been widely used for the controlling of coccidiosis, alternative approaches have to be developed as more and more resistant strains have appeared and concerns of meat safety because of drug residue is growing. In this study, coccidia species infecting rabbits and the infection rate were investigated in Zhang Jiakou city, Hebei province. Strains of Eimeria magna were isolated in coccidian-free rabbits using the single oocyst isolation technique, a precocious line was selected, and the feasibility using the precocious line as a vaccine component was evaluated. The research results were as follows: 1) Single oocyst isolation: six strains of E. magna were isolated from Zhang Jiakou of Hebei province, Wuji of Hebei province, Leshan of Sichuan province, Zhoushan of Zhejiang province, Kunming of Yunnan province, Nanjing of Jiangsu province. Among 18 coccidia-free rabbits inoculated with a single oocyst of E. magna, 16 rabbits shed oocysts, isolation rate of the species was 88.9%; no difference in oocyst production was found among different geographical strains. 2) Pathogenicity of the parent strain: The patent period and peak of oocyst excretion were consistent but oocyst outputs varied with different inoculation doses, rabbits inoculated with 5x103 oocysts produced the highest number of offspring oocysts. Compared with the control group, infection groups presented clinic syndrome and lesions to different degree, affected rabbits were anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, decreased appetite and drinking, as well as excreting soft faeces and loose stool, these changes were rather obvious in the 1x 104 and 1x105 groups, whose tissue sections showed that villi were damaged to different degrees and microvilli destroyed. 3) Selection of a precocious line: 45 days coccidian-free rabbits were inoculated with oocysts of 6 original strains of E. magna and the first newly developed oocysts recovered from the intestine and stomach were used for infection of other rabbits. The prepatent period was shortened after 20 passages from 156 to 132 hours, shortened by about 20 h and remained stable after 5 passages without selection pressure. Morphologic features of precocious line oocysts differed from those of original strains but difference is not significance in size; sporulation time of the precocious line was shorter than that of original strains, by 2-4 hours. The oocyst production of original strains is about 536 times higher than that of the precocious line, which was less pathogenic and had reduced reproductive capacity. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity study showed the precocious line was attenuated and remained the immune-protective potent of its parent strain. 4) Phylogenetic analysis: 18S rDNA of the precocious line of E.magna was respectively aligned with that of the parent strain of E. magna and those E.magna in the Genbank, identity was 99.8%; the ITS-1 regionl gene of the precocious line of E.magna was also aligned with that of the parent strain of E.magna and those in the Genbank, identity is 94.7% and 93.1%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that 18S rDNA and ITS-1 region of the precocious line, parent strain of E.magna and E.magna strains in the Genbank formed a monophyletic cluster. 5) Endogenous development of the precocious line: The endogenous stages mainly parasitized the jejunum and ileum, including three asexual generations and one sexual generation. Two types of meronts were observed in each asexual generation. The first asexual generation of meronts occurred 48h post inoculation (p.i.), the second was 72 h p.i. and the third was 96 h p.i. The macrogamonts and microgamonts took place in 96-108h p.i. The mature oocysts were found 120 h p.i. This is the first report of precocious line selection of rabbit coccidia in China and the selected precocious line was attenuated and its immunogenicity was maintained, indicating its feasibility as a vaccine component.
Xiao C.W., Ji Q.N., Bao G.L., Liu Y., Wei Q., 2013. The antifungal activity of Phellodendron chinense Schneid ethanol extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rabbits (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 261
Trichophyton mentagrophytes disease in rabbits could induce hair removal, scab, dandruff and itching, the disease spreads quickly and damage rabbit industry seriously. The bark from the Phellodendron tree has been used as traditional Chinese medicine for curing gastroenteritis, abdominal pain or diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases including arthritis and dermatophytosis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antifungal effects of ethanol extract of Phellodendron chinense (PAEE) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vivo and in vitro. The milled dried bark was extracted with 75% ethanol at 80°C three times under reflux for 2 h. The combined solution was concentrated with a rotary evaporator at 45° to a concentration of PAEE (2 g/ml). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured using agar-diffusion method with little modification. In brief, serial volume of PAEE or clotrimazole (as the positive control) (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 or 3 mg dissolved in 0.2 ml DMSO) were gently mixed with 100 ml of Tryptic soy agar (TSA), poured into sterile petri dishes and incubated at 45 °C for 15 min. The final concentration of the PAEE in TSA was 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06 g/ml. Then, 1.0x106 CFU/ml eumycete suspension was inoculated and incubated for 72 h. The MIC was taken as the lowest concentration of PAEE or clotrimazole to inhibit growth of the fungus. Each experiment was carried out in duplicate. In vivo antifungal assay, 30 New Zealand White rabbits, 31 days old, weighing 400-450 g were divided into five groups consisting of six rabbits in each by simple random method, a suspension (1 ml, 1.0x106 cells) of T. mentagrophytes was applied to the marked area using a sterile pipette-tip and rubbed thoroughly for 3 consecutive days (1, 2, 3 d). Various concentration of PAEE (group PA1, PA2, PA3) formulations or clotrimazole (group PC) or distilled water (group NC) were applied topically on day 4 and continued up to day 7 (4, 5, 6, 7 d). The lesions were evaluated from the day of post-infection to 10th day continuously. The clinical evaluation was consisted of a semi-quantitative score. During quantitative analysis, the total alkaloids in PAEE was found 7.58,-0.46 mg/ml. In vitro studies, the MIC values for PAEE and clotrimazole were 1.5% (0.03g/m1 and 0.02 mg/ml, respectively). The influence of different doses of PAEE on the growth of T. mentagrophytes was also detected by dry weight determination. In addition, transmission electronic microscopy was performed to observe the effect of PAEE on cell ultrastnicture and it showed that PAEE destroyed the cell membrane of T. mentagrophytes. Furthermore, dermatophytosis infection model in rabbit with T. mentagrophytes was established for investigating the effect of PAEE (PAL PA2, PA3) in vivo. The efficacy of each group was PAl (81.9%), PA2 (87.5%), PA3 (86.1%), PC (83.3%), NC (0.00), respectively. All treatment groups showed the inhibitory effects of PAEE against T. mentagrophytes It can be concluded that PAEE has significant of antifungal activity and could be used as a treatment to T. mentagrophytes in rabbits.
Yurmiati H, Dwi Cipto B, Nurul N , 2013. Production Performance of Weaned Rabbit in Household Farming at Different Weaning Age (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 262
In any production system, rabbit productivity will be uniquely influenced by complex interaction of environmental, biological and socio economic variables. Many New Zealand White crossbred rabbits are raised by many farmers in Indonesia with the main purpose as a meat producer, so that it needs a good management. One of them is an appropriate weaning age. The purpose of this research was to obtain the production performance of kits in different weaning age which are breeding in household fanning. The research was conducted in Desa Kertawangi, Kecamatan Cisarua, Lembang toward 120 kits of New Zealand White breed from 18 rabbit parents, parity two and three. Tested weaning ages were 5, 6 and 7 weeks. The kits production trait evaluated are litter size, mortality, weaning weight, growth rate, and slaughter weight till weaning 8 week. The result shows that the best production performance of kits was obtained when weaned at 7 weeks with mortality before weaning (15% vs 25 and 31% for 5 and 6 weeks) and after weaning (23.4%, vs 44 and 38% for 5 and 6 weeks), litter size 6-8 kids, weaning weight 851 g (vs 657at 5 weeks & 758 g at 6 weeks, growth rate 182 g/week (vs 127 and 141 g/w), Slaughter weight at 8 weeks was independent of the weaning age : 1047 - 1039 and 1018 g for weaning at 5 , 6 or 7 weeks. Final weight was clearly lower than the target weight of 2 kg at 2 month, most probaly in relation with the inadequate feed quality.
Brenès-Stoto A., 2013. Weight Gain and Dressing Percentage of Rabbits Feeding Different Levels of Nacedero (Trichanthera gigantea) (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 263
Production performance, including weight gain and dressing percentage, of rabbits fed with different levels of Nacedero (Trichanthera gigantea) were evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a commercial farm located in San Ramon, Alajuela (Costa Rica). Thirty weanling animals (Californian breed) were used, randomly distributed among three treatments: T1: Control: 100% commercial extruded diet, T2: 85% concentrate and 15% Nacedero fresh leaves, T3: 70% concentrate and 30% Nacedero fresh leaves. Animals were individually weighed weekly for 8 weeks, then slaughtered at 88 days of age and dressing percentage calculated. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between animals from treatments 1 and 2 compared to treatment 3 (Tukey test). Treatment 3 showed the lowest final weight (P = 0.003), weight gain (P = 0.008) and dressing percentage (P = 0.002). Animals initial weights had an important effect in all parameter responses (P = 0.02). Average initial weights were 441 - 403 and 418 g; weight gain was 19 - 19 and 17 g/animal/day and dressing percentage was 55 - 54 and 51% for animals from treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Food intake was significantly less in animals from treatments 1 and 2 compared to control (P<0.05). It is suggested that a 15% of inclusion of fresh Nacedero foliage in diets for fattening rabbits did not affect productive performance; inclusion of up to 30% decreased productivity. Responses using dry and ground Nacedero must be evaluated fiuther.
Zainuddin M.Z., 2013. Rabbit and the Hadith of Holy Prophet Muhammad SAW (abstact). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 264.
Rabbits are prolific animal, able to grow and reproduce rapidly from forage or concentrate, does not require a large place, fairly simple enclosure. In addition, rabbits are also easy to be arise, both on the small scale as household scale to large scale as industry. Because of this, rabbits are suitable to be developed as an asset in the economic empowerment of rural communities. In Indonesia, despite the potential interest of breeders and the demand of rabbit is quite high, the demand for meat and other processed products of animal rabbits have not increased significantly. People are still accustomed to eating chicken and beef. In fact, the price of chicken and beef is much more expensive than rabbit meat. In term of nutrition, rabbit meat is also not inferior to beef and chicken. Rabbit meat can also be made other processed products such as nuggets, sausages, meatballs, shredded, dried meat, and so on. Minimal demand for rabbit meat is affected by the uncertainty in the Muslim community about meat rabbit is allowed to be eaten (halal) or not (haram). Among `Ulama' (term of address for Islam teacher) rabbit meat is forbidden to be eaten (haram). In most history of mentioned that rabbits are including animals that have undergone maskh (changed from one form into another form). Therefore, eating rabbit meat is haram. Prophet said: monkeys, pigs, dogs, elephants, wolves, rats, rabbits, lizards and other animals that are experiencing maskh and are not allowed to be consumed. Another argument said that prohibition of eating rabbits because rabbit has claws like a cat. In another history, Ridha said: Blood rabbits have similar to woman, therefore meat rabbit is haram. Contrary to the decision of the committee of Indonesian Ulama (MUD about eating rabbit meat. MUI in its meeting in Jakarta on March 12, 1983, established a law that consuming rabbit meat is halal. It is based on the hadiths of the Holy Prophet. Anas narrated, he said: Crossing in front of us a rabbit in Marri Zahran, then people chased and caught it, and I found it, then I give to Abu Thalhah and slaughtered it. And he sent its thighs to the Prophet and he accepted it, in another narration He eats the meat (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim). Accuracy haram and halal rabbit meat can certainly be explained on the credibility and accuracy of the transmission of the hadiths, in addition to other secondary means such as on the benefits and loses, not the generality caused by clawed. Based on the claws, even chicken has claws, but all Ulama decide that chicken meat is halal. The same is obtained for other animals that experienced maskh (changed from one form into another form). According to Sri Martini, expert of rabbit who is also a lecturer at the Veterinary of Padjadjaran University, Bandung, rabbit meat contains high protein and directly absorbed by the body, giving rise to energy. Because it produce energy, emerging myth that rabbit meat can make a man more strong virility. Actually, meat rabbits do not differ much with goat meat, but meat rabbits have higher content of protein and very little fat than goat meat. The explanation scientific above and the other opinion, simply by writer, the authenticity of the hadiths that explain rabbit meat is halal sharpen, as patterned by the Prophet ever. Beside of the uncertainty issue of halal-haram, still many people are reluctant to consume meat rabbits. It caused by rabbit characteristics that cute and fun pet. In this case, the author proposed two things. First, the naming of "rabbit" is replaced with "arnab", so the placard "rabbit satay" was changed to "amab satay", which means word of 'amab' as same as rabbit. The second suggestion is more on the management in the rabbit farm which clearly requires the existence of institutions so that management of rabbit farm can be more professional.
Du H.T., Wang C.Y., Wang X..P, Ma M.W., Li F.C., 2013. Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on growth performance, meat quality, fatty acid composition and liver relative enzyme mRNA expression of growing meat rabbits (abstract). 3rd Conference of the Asian Rabbit Production Association, 27-29 August 2013, Bali, Indonesia, 265
One hundred and fifty crossbred rabbits of New Zealand White rabbits x local white rabbits (9 weeks old) were allocated to five groups and to evaluate the effects of five levels of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) addition (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg diet, as-fed basis) in the diets on growth performance, meat quality, fatty acids composition of muscle and liver, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) mRNA expression in the liver of growing meat rabbits were studied. The quadratic effect of ALA addition on average daily intake (ADI) was obtained (P<0.0001). ALA addition had significant influence on muscle color of longissimus lumborum (LL) included L*, a* and b*(P < 0.0001, P = 0.0007 and P = 0.0120, respectively). The mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) content of LL decreased with dietary ALA increase (P = 0.0001) and the poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and C18:3 (n-3) contents in the LL and liver increased with dietary ALA increase (P = 0.0006, P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P<0.0001, respectively). The acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) mRNA expression in the liver decreased (P<0.0001) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT 1) mRNA expression in the liver increased (P<0.0001) with dietary ALA increase.